Source code for

# This file is part of Aenea
# Aenea is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
# the terms of version 3 of the GNU Lesser General Public License as
# published by the Free Software Foundation.
# Aenea is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
# ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
# FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU Lesser General Public
# License for more details.
# You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public
# License along with Aenea.  If not, see <>.
# Copyright (2014) Alex Roper
# Alex Roper <>

# Heavily modified from Aenea's xdotool implementation for X11.

Window class for X11


# pylint: disable=W0622
# Suppress warnings about redefining the built-in 'id' function.

from __future__ import print_function

import locale
import logging
import os
from subprocess import Popen, PIPE
import sys

import psutil
from six import binary_type

from .base_window import BaseWindow
from .rectangle import Rectangle

[docs]class X11Window(BaseWindow): """ The Window class is an interface to the window control and placement APIs for X11. Window control methods such as :meth:`close` will return ``True`` if successful. This class requires the following external programs: * ``wmctrl`` * ``xdotool`` * ``xprop`` """ _log = logging.getLogger("window") #----------------------------------------------------------------------- # Methods and attributes for running commands. # Commands wmctrl = "wmctrl" xdotool = "xdotool" xprop = "xprop" @classmethod def _run_command(cls, command, arguments): """ Run a command with arguments and return the result. :param command: command to run :type command: str :param arguments: arguments to append :type arguments: list :returns: stdout, return_code :rtype: tuple """ arguments = [str(arg) for arg in arguments] full_command = [command] + arguments full_readable_command = ' '.join(full_command) cls._log.debug(full_readable_command) try: kwargs = dict(stdout=PIPE, stderr=PIPE) # Fork the process with setsid() if on a POSIX system such as # Linux. if == 'posix': kwargs.update(dict(preexec_fn=os.setsid)) # Execute the child process. p = Popen(full_command, **kwargs) stdout, stderr = p.communicate() # Decode output if it is binary. encoding = locale.getpreferredencoding() if isinstance(stdout, binary_type): stdout = stdout.decode(encoding) if isinstance(stderr, binary_type): stderr = stderr.decode(encoding) # Print error messages to stderr. Filter BadWindow messages. stderr = stderr.rstrip() if stderr and "BadWindow" not in stderr: print(stderr, file=sys.stderr) # Return the process output and return code. return stdout.rstrip(), p.returncode except OSError as e: cls._log.error("Failed to execute command '%s': %s. Is " "%s installed?", full_readable_command, e, command) raise e @classmethod def _run_command_simple(cls, exe, arguments): # Run the command and return whether or not it succeeded based on # the return code. stdout, return_code = cls._run_command(exe, arguments) if stdout: print(stdout) return return_code == 0 @classmethod def _run_wmctrl_command_simple(cls, arguments): return cls._run_command_simple(cls.wmctrl, arguments) @classmethod def _run_xdotool_command(cls, arguments): return cls._run_command(cls.xdotool, arguments) @classmethod def _run_xdotool_command_simple(cls, arguments): return cls._run_command_simple(cls.xdotool, arguments) @classmethod def _run_xprop_command(cls, arguments): return cls._run_command(cls.xprop, arguments) #----------------------------------------------------------------------- # Class methods to create new Window objects.
[docs] @classmethod def get_foreground(cls): window_id, return_code = cls._run_xdotool_command([ "getactivewindow" ]) if return_code == 0: return cls.get_window(int(window_id)) else: return cls.get_window(0) # return an invalid window
[docs] @classmethod def get_all_windows(cls): # Get all window IDs using 'xdotool search'. stdout, return_code = cls._run_xdotool_command([ 'search', '--onlyvisible', '--name', '' ]) if return_code == 0: lines = [line for line in stdout.split('\n') if line] windows = [cls.get_window(int(line)) for line in lines] else: # Return any windows found previously. if stdout: print(stdout) return list(cls._windows_by_id.values()) # Exclude window IDs that have no associated process ID. result = [] for window in windows: props = cls._get_properties_from_xprop(window, '_NET_WM_PID', '_NET_WM_STATE') if '_NET_WM_PID' not in props: continue has_state = '_NET_WM_STATE' not in props result.append((window, has_state)) # Sort the list so that windows without _NET_WM_STATE are # last. result.sort(key=lambda pair: pair[1]) return [w for (w, _) in result] # return just the windows
[docs] @classmethod def get_matching_windows(cls, executable=None, title=None): # Make window searches case-insensitive. if executable: executable = executable.lower() if title: title = title.lower() # Get matching window IDs using 'xdotool search'. args = ['search', '--onlyvisible', '--name'] if title: args.append(title) else: args.append('') stdout, return_code = cls._run_xdotool_command(args) if return_code == 0: lines = [line for line in stdout.split('\n') if line] windows = [cls.get_window(int(line)) for line in lines] else: # Use windows found previously. if stdout: print(stdout) windows = list(cls._windows_by_id.values()) matching = [] for window in windows: if executable: if window.executable.lower().find(executable) == -1: continue if title: if window.title.lower().find(title) == -1: continue # Match found. matching.append(window) # Sort the window list so that windows without _NET_WM_STATE are # last. matching.sort(key=lambda w: w.state is None) return matching
#----------------------------------------------------------------------- # Methods for initialization and introspection. def __init__(self, id): super(X11Window, self).__init__(id=id) self._pid = -1 # initialized later if required self._executable = -1 def __repr__(self): args = ["id=%d" % self._id] + list(self._names) return "%s(%s)" % (self.__class__.__name__, ", ".join(args)) #----------------------------------------------------------------------- # Methods and properties for window attributes. def _get_properties_from_xprop(self, *properties): # This method retrieves windows properties by shelling out to xprop. result = {} args = ['-id',] + list(properties) stdout, return_code = self._run_xprop_command(args) if return_code > 0: return {} for line in stdout.split('\n'): line = line.split(' =', 1) if len(line) != 2: continue raw_key, value = line raw_key, value = raw_key.strip(), value.strip() if 'STRING)' in raw_key: # This also handles (UTF8_STRING). value = value[1:-1] # Use a list if there are multiple strings. if '", "' in value: value = [string for string in value.split('", "')] # Get the key without the property type. key = raw_key[0:raw_key.find('(')] result[key] = value # Split up class and class name. if 'WM_CLASS' in result: window_class_name, window_class = result.pop('WM_CLASS') result['cls_name'] = window_class_name result['cls'] = window_class # Return the requested properties. return result def _get_window_text(self): # Get the title text. args = ['getwindowname',] stdout, return_code = self._run_xdotool_command(args) if return_code == 0: return stdout else: if stdout: print(stdout) return "" def _get_class_name(self): return (self._get_properties_from_xprop("WM_CLASS") .get('cls_name', '')) def _get_window_pid(self): # Set the pid once when it is needed. if self._pid == -1: p = '_NET_WM_PID' pid = self._get_properties_from_xprop(p).get(p) if pid: pid = int(pid) self._pid = pid return self._pid @property def cls(self): """ Read-only access to the window's class. """ return (self._get_properties_from_xprop("WM_CLASS") .get('cls', '')) @property def role(self): """ Read-only access to the window's X11 role attribute. :returns: role :rtype: str """ p = 'WM_WINDOW_ROLE' return self._get_properties_from_xprop(p).get(p, '') @property def type(self): """ Read-only access to the window's X11 type property, if it is set. :returns: type :rtype: str """ p = '_NET_WM_WINDOW_TYPE' return self._get_properties_from_xprop(p).get(p, '') @property def state(self): """ Read-only access to the X window state. Windows can have multiple states, so this returns a tuple. This property invokes a (relatively) long-running function, so store the result locally instead of using it multiple times. If the window does not have the _NET_WM_STATE property, then ``None`` will be returned. :return: window state (if any) :rtype: tuple | None """ p = '_NET_WM_STATE' net_wm_state = self._get_properties_from_xprop(p).get(p) if net_wm_state is None: # Indicate to callers that _NET_WM_STATE was missing. return None elif not net_wm_state: return tuple() else: return tuple(net_wm_state.split(', ')) @property def _no_window_state(self): return self.state is None def _get_window_module(self): # Get the executable using the process ID and psutil. pid = if pid == -1: self._executable = '' elif self._executable == -1: for p in psutil.process_iter(attrs=['pid', 'exe', 'name']): if['pid'] == pid: self._executable =['exe'] or['name'] return self._executable # Set to '' if it wasn't found. self._executable = '' return self._executable @classmethod def _is_minimized(cls, state): return state is not None and '_NET_WM_STATE_HIDDEN' in state @property def is_minimized(self): return self._is_minimized(self.state) @property def is_visible(self): state = self.state return state is not None and '_NET_WM_STATE_HIDDEN' not in state @classmethod def _is_maximized(cls, state): # Note: this means a window must be maximized both horizontally and # vertically, but that is typically what maximize means anyway. return (state is not None and '_NET_WM_STATE_MAXIMIZED_VERT' in state and '_NET_WM_STATE_MAXIMIZED_HORZ' in state) @property def is_maximized(self): return self._is_maximized(self.state) @property def is_fullscreen(self): """ Whether the window is in fullscreen mode. This does not work for all window types (e.g. pop up menus). :rtype: bool """ state = self.state return state is not None and '_NET_WM_STATE_FULLSCREEN' in state @property def is_focused(self): """ Whether the window has input focus. This does not work for all window types (e.g. pop up menus). :rtype: bool """ state = self.state return state is not None and '_NET_WM_STATE_FOCUSED' in state #----------------------------------------------------------------------- # Methods related to window geometry.
[docs] def get_position(self): stdout, return_code = self._run_xdotool_command( ['getwindowgeometry', '--shell',]) if return_code > 0: if stdout: print(stdout) return Rectangle(0, 0, 0, 0) geometry = stdout.strip().split('\n') geo = dict([val.lower() for val in line.split('=')] for line in geometry) geo = dict((key, int(value)) for (key, value) in geo.items()) return Rectangle(geo['x'], geo['y'], geo['width'], geo['height'])
[docs] def set_position(self, rectangle): l, t, w, h = rectangle.ltwh id = return self._run_xdotool_command_simple( ['windowmove', id, l, t, 'windowsize', id, w, h] )
#----------------------------------------------------------------------- # Methods for miscellaneous window control.
[docs] def minimize(self): # Attempt to minimize the window. Return the command's success. return self._run_xdotool_command_simple(['windowminimize',])
def _toggle_maximize(self, is_maximized): # Use wmctrl to add or remove the maximized window properties from # the window's _NET_WM_STATE set. # Note: this should be possible with xprop, but is not supported. maximized_props = 'maximized_vert,maximized_horz' add_remove = 'remove' if is_maximized else 'add' return self._run_wmctrl_command_simple([ '-ir',, '-b', '%s,%s' % (add_remove, maximized_props) ])
[docs] def maximize(self): if not self.is_maximized: return self._toggle_maximize(False) return True # already maximized.
[docs] def restore(self): state = self.state if self._is_minimized(state): return self._run_xdotool_command_simple([ 'windowactivate', ]) elif self._is_maximized(state): return self._toggle_maximize(True) else: # True if already restored or False if no _NET_WM_STATE. return state is not None
[docs] def close(self): return self._run_xdotool_command_simple(['windowclose',])
[docs] def set_foreground(self): # Restore if minimized. if self.is_minimized and not self.restore(): return False # restore() failed if not self.is_focused: id = '%i' % return self._run_xdotool_command_simple([ 'windowactivate', id, 'windowfocus', id ]) return True
[docs] def set_focus(self): """ Set the input focus to this window. This method will set the input focus, but will not necessarily bring the window to the front. """ return self._run_xdotool_command_simple([ 'windowfocus', ])